Fixing My Gaze - "Stereo Sue", Binocular Vision & Stereopsis

Fixing My GazeStereo Sue, The New Yorker











Fixing My Gaze is and inspirational book by neuroscientist, Susan Barry, who was born with strabismus (an eye turn) and had lived all her life without stereo vision, meaning that she could not see in three dimensions. Her case was also the subject of an article by Oliver Sacks titled "Stereo Sue" published in the New Yorker.

She had three surgeries to "correct" the eye turn cosmetically but she still could not see properly and the eye was still turned, although less than before. She had lived this way for over 40 years until she met optometrist Dr. Theresa Ruggiero. 

Dr. Ruggiero treated Susan with vision therapy which corrected the eye turn and allowed her see in three dimensions for the first time in her life. Can you imagine how her world was transformed? 

Here is what Susan Barry said in an interview with Scientific American about how the world looked different after vision therapy: 

"For the first time, I could see the volumes of space between different tree branches, and I liked immersing myself in those inviting pockets of space. As I walk about, leaves, pine needles, and flowers, - even light fixtures and ceiling pipes - seem to float on a medium more substantial than air. Snow no longer appears to fall in one plane slightly in front of me. Now, the snowflakes envelope me, floating by in layers and layers of depth. It's been seven years since I gained stereo vision, but ordinary views like these still fill me with a deep sense of wonder and joy." 

Our vision therapy practice includes many patients with strabismus but all of them are very young (obviously it is better to fix the problem when a patient is young to save her from living years with the condition). 

Susan Barry's story is remarkable in that she was in mid-life when she received vision therapy. The conventional wisdom, now being disproved by new studies, was that after a "critical period" around the age of 7 or 8 , the brain could not be trained (or "rewired") to see in new ways. The old scientific thinking was that after early childhood, the brain became fixed. In fact, Susan Barry herself and other scientists thought that it was impossible for her to ever see in 3D. 

Now, we know that the brain exhibits neuroplasticity and that given the proper behavioral therapy, even adults can rewire their brains. This has given hope to many people who did not receive treatment for visual processing disorders at a young age. Now it seems possible that even older patients with amblyopia or strabismus and other binocular vision disorders can benefit from treatments like vision therapy. 

You can hear interviews with Susan Barry and read more about her story at her website:



Vision therapy and adults with convegence insufficiency

"Today, a relatively small group of optometrists still practice and continue to perfect optometric vision therapy techniques.  Yet, it is difficult for a strabismic patient to learn about, much less access, this type of clinician."

Dr. Susan Barry, 2010 Journal of the American Optometric Association 

TED - ideas worth spreading - vision therapy

Neuroscientist (and adult vision therapy success story) Dr. Susan Barry gives a TED Talk about depth perception and vision therapy:


Dr. Susan Barry talks about strabismus, the importance of binocular vision, reading problems and the limits of strabismus surgery



Dr. Susan Barry talks about stereopsis (stereo vision), rewiring the brain to achieve binocular vision, the vision problems she faced with poor binocular vision and how a developmental optometrist fixed it.



Dr. Susan Barry talks about telling her story to famous scientist Oliver Sacks (who was portrayed by Robin Williams in the film Awakenings).